Interferon Gamma Function & Side Effects

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Interferon Beta or IFN B or IFN β is a human cytokine encoded by the IFNB1 gene. IFN B belongs to the Interferon type I family that regulates the immune system in humans. They are present in all mammals.MIF is an inflammatory cytokine that co-stimulates CD4 and regulatory T cells. It is an autocrine effector of class switching to IgG2a in B-cells and Th17 induction. MIF acts on immune cells by binding to the cell surface receptor CD74 and by complexing with D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT)/CD44. MIF activates TNF-α, interleukin 2 (IL2), IL6 and IL12 production, which converge on the downstream cytokine IFN-γ to drive differentiation of naive Th cells towards the Th1 phenotype via STAT1 and 4 transcription factors. Inhibition of its activity may be helpful in numerous autoimmune disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), type I diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus, Crohn’s disease, myasthenia gravis, and psoriasis.

If you have a disease that causes your body to make abnormal proteins, interferon side effects  stops these proteins from being made. It also helps your body destroy abnormal cells. An abnormal cell is one that has a disease or that might develop into a cancer cell. Interferon beta is used to treat multiple sclerosis, a disease in which your immune system attacks the covering of nerves in your brain and spinal cord. This damage may cause problems with muscle control and strength, vision, balance, feeling, and thinking.

Interferon gamma function or IFN-γ is a human monomeric protein and cytokine involved in activating the immune system. This protein, a type II interferon, is interlaced with two monomers that are anti-parallel to each other. Its gene name is IFNG. This protein binds to the IFN-γ receptor complex to elicit a cellular signal. Two IFNGR1 subunits and two IFNGR2 subunits make up the IFN-γ receptor complex. Acting as a key player in innate and adaptive immunity, this cytokine inhibits viral replication, fights against bacteria, and modulates and stimulates the immune system. Interferon gamma (IFN γ) was first described in 1966. IFN γ is one of two known type II interferons, which is a classification in the interferon (IFN) family of molecules. IFNs are naturally occurring proteins that help regulate your immune system and antiviral responses. Along with its type I counterparts, IFN α and IFN β, IFN γ has a number of activities, including fighting off invading pathogens such as viruses and bacteria.

Interferon-gamma, also known as type II interferon, is a cytokine protein produced largely by T lymphocytes (T cells) and natural killer cells that play an important role in the regulation of immune system response. By stimulating T cells and macrophages to destroy tumor cells, increase activity of other white blood cells against tumors and viruses, inhibit the growth of B lymphocytes (B cells), and regulate inflammation, interferon gamma plays a critical role in inhibiting virus replication and fighting cancer. IFN-γ is also involved in the process of activation-induced cell death.